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History Of Indian Mathematics

1.3 Geometry

The Indian knowledge of trigonometry can be traced back to period of Shulva Sutras which are studied for construction of different types of Vedis, Chities and bricks for performing Yagnas. Thus from the applications discussed in these Shulva Sutras it is clear that Indian have sound knowledge of basic geometric principles. This knowledge includes properties of the triangle, quadrilateral, circle, trapezium etc. Many transformations and constructions are found discussed which reveal the proficiency in the field. Later all the mathematicians developed and studied the plane and spherical geometry extensively. The well known Pythagoras theorem, general result of Ptolemy’s theorem on cyclic quadrilaterals, construction of rational quadrilaterals and triangles, properties of similar figures, surface area and volume of solids like sphere, pyramid, cone and their frustums are some of the instances which expound the depth of knowledge.